13 Dec 2016

Network Marketing: An Alternative Income Stream

"Unless you are networking, you soon may be “not working.” Network marketing is not just becoming mainstream, it’s emerging today as the dominant market trend. It’s a trend that can’t be, won’t be stopped. We are entering an era of giant killers! Individuals today have as much power and knowledge accessibility as corporations! Instead of being a victim of change, you are now in a position to be a change." --- Denis Waitley.


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Network marketing is a type of business opportunity that is very popular with people looking for part-time, flexible businesses. Some of the most successful business people all around the world are either involved and recommend network marketing, including Donald Trump, Richard Branson, Robert Kiyosaki, T Harv Eker and many others.
Image - Robert Kiyosaki Quote
Image courtesy of LinkedIn Pulse
Network marketing offers an opportunity for literally millions of people to achieve economic independence.

Why You Should Join Network Marketing


  • An opportunity for a regular income: When you join network marketing, you are assured of a regular income if you take the time to start out well. Sometimes, the amount you make may even be three to five times of your regular monthly salary and more.
  • Less risk factor: There are virtually no risks in network marketing unless it is one of the pyramid schemes being paraded about. You get the value of whatever you invested and more.
  • Low operating costs: It also doesn't take huge sums of money to join a network marketing business.
  • High earning potential: As mentioned earlier, you can make more than five times of your monthly salary from network marketing alone. However, as with all businesses, you need passion to start out well. Afterward, you only need to recruit more people and you're on your way to riches.
  • Flexible work schedule: The most interesting thing about network marketing is that it doesn't interfere with your daily schedule. You can do it at your own convenience and still make it big. And, anyone who desires to make more money can do it. You don't need a professional qualification to be a network marketer. You only need a passion.


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Many people are already making it big and contributing to society as a result of network marketing. You can do same if you want. The choice is yours to make.
    Leave your comments below.

    12 Dec 2016

    Profile Of Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo

    Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo, the president-elect of Ghana, was born and raised in Ga-Maami (Accra Central) and in the Nima area of Accra.

    His father’s residence, Betty House at Korle Wokon in Accra, was effectively the headquarters of the country’s first political party, the United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) after it was formed at Saltpond on 4 August 1947.
    Image - Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo
    Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo, president-elect, and wife Rebecca. Image
    Courtesy: Ghanalive
    Three of the “Big Six” – the founding fathers of Ghana – were his relatives: J. B. Danquah (grand-uncle), William Ofori-Atta (uncle) and Edward Akufo-Addo (the third Chief Justice of Ghana and later ceremonial President of the Republic from 1969 to 1972), (his father).

    Akufo-Addo received his primary education first at the Government Boys School, Adabraka, and later at the Rowe Road School (now Kimbu), both in Accra Central. He went to England to study for his O-Level and A-Level examinations at Lancing College, Sussex. He began the Philosophy, Politics and Economics course at New College, Oxford in 1962, but apparently left soon after. [2] He returned to Ghana in 1962 to teach at Accra Academy Secondary School, before going to read Economics at the University of Ghana, Legon, in 1964, earning a BSc(Econ) degree in 1967.

    He subsequently studied law in the UK and was called to the English Bar (Middle Temple) in July 1971. Akufo-Addo was called to the Ghana bar in July 1975. Legal and business career Akufo-Addo stayed in France for five years as a lawyer at the now-defunct New York-based international law firm Coudert Brothers. Apart from the welcome exposure to the dynamics of international corporate transactions, his stay in France also made him fluent in French. In 1975, he returned home to Accra to continue with his legal career.


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    He joined the chambers of U. V. Campbell from 1975 to 1979, and in 1979 co-founded the law firm Akufo-Addo, Prempeh & Co., which has become one of the prominent law firms in Ghana. Some Ghanaian lawyers who passed through his law firm are among the most outstanding lawyers at the Ghanaian bar today. They include Sophia Akuffo , Justice of the Supreme Court; Joyce Darko; Daniel Afari Yeboah; Philip Addison; Joe Ghartey , a former Attorney-General and Minister for Justice; Alex Quaynor; Frank Davies; Kweku Paintsil; Ursula Owusu; Atta Akyea, Akufo-Addo’s successor as MP for Abuakwa South constituency; Akoto Ampaw; Yoni Kulendi; Kwame Akuffo; Kwaku Asirifi; and Godfred Dame. Like the “Doyen of Gold Coast politics”, J. B. Danquah, and others before him, Akufo-Addo used his law practice to champion the cause of human rights, rule of law, justice, freedom, and democracy.

    He was well known for giving free legal assistance to the poor and fought for the rights and liberties of the Ghanaian people. Indeed, many of the important constitutional cases of the modern era, which, inter alia, protected the independence of the judiciary, the right of the citizen to demonstrate without a police permit, and the right of equal access to all political parties to the State-owned media, were undertaken by him. Akufo-Addo has served on the boards and committees of a number of political, legal, commercial, and social organizations in the country.

    He was the first Chairperson of DHL (GH) Ltd; Chairperson, Kinesic Communications (Co) Ltd, publishers of The Statesman; and the first Chairperson of the Ghana Committee on Human and Peoples’ Rights. He was responsible, through his association with the US company, Millicom, for introducing mobile telephony into the country.


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    Political career In his early thirties, Akufo-Addo was the General Secretary of the broad-based People’s Movement for Freedom and Justice (PMFJ), which was composed of political stalwarts such as Akwasi Amankwa Afrifa, William Ofori-Atta, Komla Agbeli Gbedemah , Albert Adu Boahen , Sam Okudzeto , Obed Asamoah , Godfrey Agama, K. S. P. Jantuah, Jones Ofori-Atta, Johnny Hanson and Nii Amaah Amartefio (“Mr. No”). This group led the “NO” campaign in the UNIGOV referendum of 1978, designed to solicit popular support for a one-party military-led State.

    The “No” campaign ultimately brought about the downfall of the Acheampong military government on 5 July 1978, and the restoration of multiparty democratic rule to the country in 1979. Akufo-Addo had to go briefly into exile after the referendum when his life was in danger. But, from Europe, he could be heard constantly on the BBC World Service, vigorously criticizing the military rulers back in Ghana and calling for a return to democracy.

    He is acknowledged as one of the leaders of the pro-democracy movement in Ghana. In 1991, Akufo-Addo was the chairman of the Organising Committee of the Danquah-Busia Memorial Club, a club dedicated to the preservation of the memory and ideals of the two great advocates of Ghanaian democracy, J. B. Danquah and K. A. Busia, Prime Minister of the Progress Party government of the 2nd Republic of Ghana. Akufo-Addo traveled throughout Ghana to establish branches of the Club all over the country in the grassroots style for which he is known.

    These branches eventually transformed into local organs of the New Patriotic Party (NPP) prior to the elections of 1992, which heralded the reintroduction of democratic governance under the 4th Republic. In 1992, he was the first national organizer of the NPP and, later that year, campaign manager of the party’s first presidential candidate, Prof. Albert Adu Boahen, the man of courage who broke the “culture of silence” in Ghana and played such a crucial role in the reintroduction of democracy.

    In 1992, Akufo-Addo set up and financed The Statesman newspaper, which has become the unofficial mouthpiece of the NPP. In 1995, he led the famous “Kume Preko” demonstrations of the Alliance For Change (AFC), a broad-based political pressure group, which mobilized millions of people onto the streets of Ghana to protest the harsh economic conditions of the Rawlings era. Some pundits in Ghana believe that this was instrumental in re-establishing the NPP as a more formidable force after Professor Adu Boahen. Akufo-Addo was elected three times between 1996 and 2008 as Member of Parliament for the Abuakwa South constituency in the Eastern region of Ghana.

    From 2001 to 2007, as Cabinet Minister, first as Attorney-General and Minister of Justice for two years, and later as Foreign Minister for five years, Akufo-Addo served in the government of President John Kufuor with distinction. As Attorney-General, he was responsible for the repeal of the Criminal Libel Law, which, hitherto, had been used to intimidate the media and criminalize free speech.


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    The repeal has enabled the Ghanaian media to become one of the most vibrant and freest in Africa. Under his chairmanship of the Legal Sector Reform Committee, the implementation of the court automation program was initiated. As Foreign Minister, he was fully involved in the successful Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) peace efforts in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, and Guinea-Bissau, and was chairman of the ECOWAS Mediation and Security Council in 2003. In 2004, Ghana was elected one of the 15 pioneer members of the African Union (AU) Peace and Security Council, a mandate that was renewed at the AU Summit in Khartoum in January 2006.

    Akufo-Addo was chosen by his peers on the AU Executive Council to chair the Ministerial Committee of 15 that fashioned the Ezulwini Consensus, which defined the African Union’s common position on UN Reforms. He negotiated for the 2007 AU Summit to be held in Accra as part of Ghana’s Golden Jubilee celebrations and chaired the AU Executive Council in 2007. Ghana was elected by her peers to take the non-permanent West African seat on the UN Security Council for 2006-07.

    In August 2006, Akufo-Addo chaired the meeting of the Security Council which took the decision that halted Israel’s massive incursions into Lebanon. Again, Ghana was elected to the new UN body, the Human Rights Council, with the highest number of votes—183 out of 191—of any country, and as a pioneer member of another UN body, the Peacebuilding Commission.

    Presidential bids In October 1998, Nana Akufo-Addo competed for the presidential candidacy of the NPP and lost to John Kufuor, the man who eventually won the December 2000 presidential election and assumed office as President of Ghana in January 2001. Akufo-Addo was the chief campaigner for candidate Kufuor in the 2000 election and became the first Attorney General and Minister for Justice of the Kufuor era.

    Akufo-Addo resigned from the Kufuor government in July 2007 to contest for the position of the presidential candidate of his party, the NPP, for the 2008 elections. Competing against 16 others, he won 48% of the votes in the first round of that election but was given a unanimous endorsement in the second round, making him the party’s presidential candidate.

    In the 7 December 2008 presidential race, he received, in the first round, more votes than John Atta Mills, the eventual winner. In the first round, Akufo-Addo received 4,159,439 votes, representing 49.13% of the votes cast, placing him first, but not enough for the 50% needed for an outright victory.

    It was the best-ever performance for a first-time presidential candidate in the Fourth Republic. In the run-off, Mills received 4,521,032 votes, representing 50.23%, thus beating Akufo-Addo by the smallest margin in Ghana’s, and, indeed, in Africa’s political history. Akufo-Addo accepted the results without calling even for a recount, thereby helping to preserve the peace, freedom, and stability of Ghana. Akufo-Addo again contested in the 2012 national elections against the NDC candidate, the late Mills’ successor as President, John Mahama, and lost.

    That election generated considerable controversy and was finally decided by the Supreme Court in a narrow 5/4 decision in favor of John Mahama. Akufo-Addo is credited with helping to preserve the peace of the country by the statesman-like manner in which he accepted the adverse verdict of the Court, at a time of high tension in the country. In March 2014, Akufo-Addo announced his decision to seek his party’s nomination for the third time ahead of the 2016 election.

    He secured an unprecedented, landslide victory of 94.35% of the votes in the party’s presidential primary in October 2014, in a contest with seven competitors. Akufo-Addo also served as Chair of the Commonwealth Observer Mission for the South African elections in 2014.

    He is from Kyebi in the Eastern Region. He is married to Rebecca Akufo-Addo (née Griffiths-Randolph). They have five daughters and five grandchildren.

    From: GhanaWeb

    5 Dec 2016

    Fake US Embassy In Ghana Shut Down After A Decade

    It flew the American flag, hung a photo of President Obama and issued US visas for more than a decade.

    But a building that operated as a US embassy in Ghana was a fake, the US State Department says.
    The enterprise, which issued fraudulently obtained legitimate visas, counterfeit visas, and other false identification documents, was overseen by figures from Ghanaian and Turkish crime rings working in cahoots with corrupt Ghanaian officials, the US State Department said in a statement. It operated three days a week in Accra, the capital.
    Image - Fake US embassy building
    Crooks operated a sham US embassy out of this building in Accra,
    the US State Department said.


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    The State Department did not say how many people may have entered the United States illegally using documentation issued by the crime ring, nor did it say how the ring may have obtained official documents.
    Image - Fake passports and documents
    Some of the 150 passports and other identification paperwork
    seized during the raids.
    Visas and passports from 10 different countries were found during raids on the nondescript stucco building with the corrugated tin roof, the State Department said.
    Authorities shut down the operation after receiving a tip last summer and conducting a joint investigation by diplomatic security agents at the real US embassy in Ghana, Ghanaian authorities and other international partners.
    Image - Real US embassy building
    The exterior of the real US Embassy in Accra.


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    The operation also uncovered a fake Dutch embassy in Accra, the State Department said.
    Authorities in Ghana and the Netherlands did not immediately respond to a request by CNN for more information.

    The sham embassy advertised its services through fliers and billboards to cultivate customers from Ghana and neighboring countries, the State Department said.

    From: CNN

    10 Nov 2016

    Trump's Advice To Politicians

    Donald Trump has won the American election despite all the odds that were stuck against him. The media did not favor him, the pollsters ruled him out, and even bigwigs in the Republican party of which he is a flagbearer denied him. He was literally a man on his own. Some labeled him as a racist, divisive, unfit for president and a very dangerous figure in the American polity.

    Donald Trump was a man of principles. He never wanted to find himself in a situation which could conflict his personal convictions with that of his Republican party and the rest of the American people. However, he seemed to have had a message that resonated with the American people, both black and white, men and women, and the ordinary American in general. His message was simply to "Make America Great Again!". He never hid his true nature from the people he sought to lead.
    Donald J. Trump
    Donald Trump's message to "Make America Great Again!" resonated with the
    American masses and resulted in his election victory.

    I personally admired Trump's take on how to end migration and the deportation of illegal migrants, especially those from Africa. This was a call to African leaders to sit up and address the problems in their countries that are making those countries unattractive to the youth. It was a call for African leaders to creatively think and solve their own problems than encouraging youth to stowaway.

    Although he became unpopular with his utterances, he never gave up his principles. He knew that to win the trust of the people, he has to stand on his principles no matter whose ox is gored. He was not a favorite of the bookmakers. He was seen as an unfortunate figure among his party.


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    Internationally, Donald Trump was seen as a divisive figure and a racist. But it did not stop him from soldiering on to victory. Trump had it at the back of his mind that it is only the American people who can make him president and no one else. His task was, therefore, to get a message that speaks to the hopes and aspirations of the American people first. The international community comes second.

    As a businessman, Trump had a strategy that worked; give the people more of what they like and they will always be loyal to you. He knows how to win the trust and confidence of a customer. And the evidence is clear in his victory in the 2016 American election.

    What do you also make of Donald Trump's win? Share your comments below.

    9 Nov 2016

    Television Commercials: How They Impact Children

    Television and radio used to be mediums of learning in the past. It was once said that any student who wants to learn how to speak good English must be an avid listener of radio and television news. And it was not an exaggeration at all.

    From the news items to the commercials, everything was good for education. Even the movies. Certain movies were planned to be shown at certain times of the day depending on whether they were suitable for children or not. Adverts were very exciting to watch or listen to. They were easy to memorize and some even became singsongs among school pupils.
    As seen on tv
    Children learn more from visuals than from verbal instructions.
    The television should be able to help them learn better.


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    Movies rated LNV and PG were shown at times children were assumed to be away from the television. Adult content was reserved for night showing when children had no chance of viewing them. And it worked to control the desires of energetic children who were willing to try what they see adults do, especially on the television.

    Vulgar language was difficult to detect in a movie. Children were better educated because of the educative programs that were shown at the time.

    Even alcoholic beverages were not advertised at times that children were believed to be hooked to television, especially at prime time.

    Today, creativity among children who watch television has gone down. It is also not easy to find children who can do interesting stuff or write comprehensive sentences because we have flooded our television screens with so-called modern practices. Aphrodisiacs now assume a huge percentage of advert time than books.

    Imagine future leaders who are introduced to pornographic content at a tender age. They are tempted to practice when nobody's watching. They can't write legibly. They can't speak English fluently. And the best grades are from rich homes because of leaked exam papers they bought and not from geniuses.

    31 Oct 2016

    Desperate Politicians!

    Elections constitute a very integral aspect of democracy and are organized periodically to enable citizens of a country or organization to choose a leader who they think resonates with their aspirations as a people. The citizens are allowed to exercise their franchise freely without intimidation from any quarters. The question is, do some countries actually understand democracy at all?

    Ghana is a democratic country with almost two decades of experience. Ghana's democracy is currently being touted internationally as one of the best in Africa. The country has successfully organized peaceful presidential and parliamentary elections on a four-year term basis since 1992.
    Having been a keen observer of the electoral process since adolescence, so many things have changed over the years in Ghana's political space. Many people now moot the messages put across by political parties, unlike in the past where they would have towed the line of family members without regards to the message. Party manifestoes and messages members put across, both in discussions in the media and on campaign platforms are now properly scrutinized.

    It is, however, not surprising to see politicians delivering vague promises just to win votes. This has become a trend in Ghana's politics. To get the required percentage of votes, all sorts of tactics are employed, including telling plain lies.

    Dr. Mahamudu Bawumia pounding fufu
    NPP Running mate, Dr. Mahamudu Bawumia, pounding fufu
    during a campaign tour.
    As Ghana prepares to go to the polls in 2016, it is not surprising to see political parties engage in campaign brawls just to score political points against each other. Juicy promises are being made from all angles. The question one needs to ask is, do these numerous promises get to see the light of day when they win the election? Just imagine what Ghana would become if a political party in power is able to implement just half of its manifesto promises. However, the campaign messages seem very different from what actually gets implemented after they are voted into power. Otherwise, I cannot fathom why a presidential candidate who promised to employ more graduates and also create more employment opportunities for the youth will turn around to put an embargo on employment. As a Ghanaian comedian once said, "I can't think far. I don't think madness!"
    Alfred Oko Vanderpuije stirring banku
    Accra Mayor, Alfred Oko Vanderpuije, stirring banku during
    a campaign tour.

    It is no wonder our president thinks Ghanaians have short memories because we are able to tolerate any confused leader for four years and more. I totally agree with his assertion, not that it is true but because we don't hold them accountable for their stewardship. They, therefore, assume we have forgotten their lies so soon and will entertain them for a second time.

    On a daily basis, our radio and TV stations are flooded with communication teams of political parties trying to sell their campaign messages to the populace to get votes. It’s interesting to listen to how they sometimes display sheer ignorance on certain issues and end up misleading the masses.
    I was thrilled by a statement made by Hon. Okudzeto Ablakwa on a radio station in an attempt to respond to his opponent's claim that the government of which he is a deputy minister, has not introduced any pro-poor social policy. His answer was, “We have supplied laptops to teachers across the country”. It baffles my mind how a learned politician can describe such an act as a pro-poor policy. How is that benefiting the peasant farmer when those laptops were given to only a selected few?

    Ursula Owusu, on the other hand, said her presidential candidate has promised to relieve tertiary students from paying utility bills. Her opponent insisted that no tertiary student was paying utility bills at the time, except those in private hostels. On whether her government will pay bills for students in private hostels, she said: “the students are not in the capacity to pay bills, so they are not supposed to pay”. This implies that any student who decides to seek comfort anywhere apart from the official school accommodation will have their utility bills catered for by the government. Are we serious about politics at all?

    With a few days left to this year's major elections, many politicians have become extraordinarily friendly with the electorate. It is not surprising to see men of substance pounding fufu, stirring banku, plaiting hair, sweeping floors of the electorate during campaign tours. They are ever ready to do anything to get the votes.

    Elsewhere, presidential candidates are subject to debates with the active participation of the masses. Opportunities are then given the electorate to ask questions about their policies and programs. This enables the constituents to decide better on who is likely to do a good job when given the nod. The case is very different in Ghana. The Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA) has taken up the responsibility of organizing debates for presidential candidates. However, political parties are not bound by any law to participate in those debates. A political party, therefore, decides either to participate or not. Where the debates are successfully organized, people often are not given a chance to ask questions.

    Politicians often resort to lies, insults, malignment and deception of the electorate in order to score political points. And the most unfortunate thing is, some jobless youth are willing to sacrifice to see their favorite politician in power, even if they remained jobless. They are unaware that they have a duty first to the nation before any political party. They don't know that a brighter future lies in their hands, based on the kind of leader they choose.

    Many more Ghanaians need to get discerning. Any Ghanaian seeking to annex the highest office of the land should be properly and thoroughly scrutinized before given the nod. Politicians should be made to know that more Ghanaians are now able to read between the lines of political gimmickry and genuine deliverable promises.

    Let's follow them on their campaign tours and digest their messages. Reasonable and implementable programs and policies should inform your choice of vote. Vote based on the issues. Vote for a brighter future. Come 7th December, make your vote count in the 2016 elections. Let your voice be heard through your thumbprint. May God lead us into a peaceful election.

    God bless our homeland Ghana.

    Written by: Francis Appiah
    The Writer is a Senior Staff Nurse (SSN) with the Ghana Health Service who also has a passion for socio-political issues.
    Email: afranzoa87@gmail.com

    15 Oct 2016

    Nurses Attitudes; The Broader View

    Nurses are the fulcrum around which the health care delivery system of any nation rotates. They are trained to be independent of other members of the health team where necessary. Nurses are still able to work if all other health workers lay down tools. Despite doing so much for so less, nurses are still by far the least respected of health care professionals.

    Nurses are found everywhere championing the health affairs of families and communities, even in places no other professional wants to go. They go out of their job description every time into other related fields to help save lives. Some act as consultants in clinics, health centers, and community-based health planning services(CHPS) compounds. In these places, nurses act as prescribers, midwives, laboratory personnel, and dispensers. They even act as laborers too. They do all these without complaining because of empathy for the sick. These things are not part of the nurse's job description. Nurses are not paid for doing all that.


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    Nurses in Ghana
    Nurses have pledged to save lives, alleviate pain and promote
    health.
    Nurses have often been in the line of fire for one thing or the other that did not go right. Many people complain about the poor attitudes of nurses towards clients and their relatives. They describe nurses as being rude and even use unprintable terms on nurses. But is this claim true?

    It has often been said, patients are supposed to be patient for nurses to nurse them. But can this be said of the nurse-patient relationship in Ghana?

    Nurses are professionals who have pledged to help save lives, reduce pain, and prevent injury. They are not people who delight in seeing anyone go through pain, not even their enemies.


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    While it may be true that some nurses lack good communication skills, it is also possible that some underlying factors could be accounting for any negative behavior emanating from nurses. Some people get to the hospital and expect the nurse available to do everything for them. They see the nurse as being the 'jack of all trade". Some people think the nurse can give orders any prescriber to come to work. They, therefore, expect the nurse available to call the prescriber on duty to come attend to them. If this is not done, they get angry and begin to verbally (and sometimes physically) abuse the nurse. And they expect the nurse to keep quiet amidst a flurry of insults. No amount of explanation can calm them down.

    Nurses are not superhumans. They also have feelings. To paraphrase Isaac Newton's third law of motion, action and reaction are equal and opposite. Some nurses are bound to exchange words if you attack their personality and professional competence.

    Ignorance is to blame for attacks on nurses. Most of these people don't know how nurse work. They are not privy to the limitations on the nursing profession. They also don't know that calling the doctor, and any other health professional for that matter to come do the work they are being paid to do, is not the duty of a nurse. If a nurse decides to call a doctor, it is a form of personal assistance. This is because all health workers, just like the nurses, are supposed to be at post every time.


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    Unfortunately, everybody seems to harbor some fear for doctors and other medical personnel. They find it easy attacking and maligning nurses than doctors or prescribers. These same people often feel frustrated if they report to the health facility and do not meet a nurse at post.

    Praising nurses for good work is like drinking poison, to some people. Instead of commending nurses for going the extra mile to help save lives, people always focus on the little mistakes to make nurses look bad in the sight of the public. These people are ignorant that without nurses, doctors and other prescribers cannot work effectively.

    The truth is, some people detest the truth even if they know it's the truth. They don't feel comfortable when they are asked to do one thing or the other due to hospital protocols. Some see it as a waste of time being taken through laid down protocols. They are impatient patients. No explanation will ever satisfy them. And they often leave the hospital blaming nurses for having wasted their time, even if it was not the nurse's fault. Some people also associate nurses with every health worker in the hospital. They believe every health worker is a nurse. No wonder they expect a nurse to retrieve their folders from the Records department and to dispense drugs to them even in established hospitals. Some even expect nurses to conduct laboratory tests for them even if the laboratory technicians are available.

    The main factor contributing to the perception of nurses being rude or careless is mainly due to ignorance. It will take some time for the public to get to grips with the actual duties of a nurse, but with patience and more education, we will get there one day.

    15 Sep 2016

    Party Manifestos In Ghanaian Politics

    The two major political parties in Ghana (NPP and NDC) are currently moving through every nook and cranny of this country, campaigning without manifestos. Each one thinks the other will plagiarize their ideas. Because of this perception, they're all holding their ideas to themselves while they go about begging and buying votes. Some civil society organizations have criticized political parties for deciding to play a hide and seek game with each other.
    Image Nana Addo and John Mahama 2016
    Nana Akuffo Addo and John Dramani Mahama
    But do people make their choices based on manifestos? In Ghana, the illiteracy rate is high, and most politicians know this. They know most people who vote can't read. They don't know anything about a budget and inflation. They are not interested in the nitty gritty. So, it will take these voters some time to get educated on some of the political jargon. Even most of the educated ones don't use manifestoes to make their choice.


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    When it comes to politics in Ghana, you don't need a Ph.D. in political science to be a "hot cake". In fact, you don't need any qualification. All you need is to master the trivialities and use them to your advantage. The better you are able to pitch your opponent's tribe against other tribes, the more successful you would be in Ghanaian politics. Who is the most handsome or the ugliest? Judging the physical appearance of your opponent and using it against them is another great weapon. Some 'educated' politicians still think short people and people with disabilities in politics are like oil and water in Ghana; they can't mix! Some 'educated' and abled people think disabled people need to be "elevated" before they qualify to run for president.

    Most uneducated and other averagely educated people are also dependent and selfish. They vote based on what they can get from a candidate for themselves rather than seeking the interest of their community. Their choices are, therefore, based on the trivial issues. People who attend social gatherings the most are more like to get the votes than people who are always busy planning how to make things better for everybody. Funerals and other social gatherings have political benefits in Ghana. Politicians, especially parliamentary candidates, have now made it a part of their business to attend certain funerals they know have huge crowds. With the crowd on looking, they showcase sumptuousness so as to court selfish and lazy voters to their side.


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    Ghanaian politicians, once in power, don't rely on manifestos to govern. They are like firefighters, tackling issues as they arise, without plans to curtail the occurrence of same. Only a few leaders have tried to live by their manifestos and were successful. Party manifestos are now irrelevant to elections because politicians say things which are often difficult to implement when they succeed in deceiving their way to power.

    17 Aug 2016

    How to Make Your Vote Count In 2016

    Ghana goes to the polls this year. Many voters out there still don't know how to cast valid ballots. It is a fact that the number of rejected ballots in all elections [since 1992] often outweigh the combined votes of the smaller political parties. It is, therefore, up to the authorities and all concerned to give more and better education to voters and potential voters so as to enable them to choose better.
    Image How to vote
    How to vote


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    The fundamental problems accounting for this huge number ranges from multiple thumb printing to poor folding of papers after thumbprinting. Some votes are not visible enough and disputes often arise at the polling stations because ballot paper appears virtually blank. These are all counted as wasted ballots and defeat the purpose of which such people even visited the polling station in the first place.

    Having been a party polling station agent before, and having seen all these problems, I think more people still need to be educated on the voting process and how to cast a valid ballot, especially the first timers.

    To avoid wasting your precious votes because they do not qualify to be counted valid, it will be good to observe the following:


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    • Vote Clearly: Make sure your thumb has enough ink on it to make your thumbprint visible on the ballot paper. Votes that are not clearly visible will be rejected because of disputes from party agents at the polling station. So make sure your vote is clearly visible on the paper.
    • Choose One Candidate Only: Thumbprint for only one candidate or party symbol on either ballot papers, parliamentary and presidential. Very often, most rejected ballots are because of some people putting their thumbprints on more than one candidate. Such votes will not be counted for your preferred candidate. To make your vote count, make sure your thumbprint goes on only one candidate or their party symbol.  Also, make sure the ink on your thumb does not mistakenly touch any other part of the paper after choosing your preferred candidate. It can make your ballot invalid.
    • Fold Papers Carefully: Fold the ballot papers well and carefully, making sure the ink doesn't go onto either of the other candidates you did not choose. After thumbprinting, it is advisable to clean your hand well before you fold the ballot paper. Then, fold the ballot paper vertically so each candidate’s head lays on his or her party symbol. This way, even if the ink mistakenly touches the other side of the paper, it will remain valid. Do not fold it horizontally. If you do this, you will be voting for more than one candidate and your vote will be an invalid one. If the paper is too long, you can fold it horizontally afterward but fold it vertically first.
    • Cast Your Ballot: Put your vote in the ballot box. Some people forget and leave their ballot papers in the voting booth. Others even send their ballot papers home. If you forget your ballot paper at the voting booth, the next person who does not agree with your choice may send it home or tear it. So make sure you place your vote in the ballot box through its vent.

    Note:

    1. Inspect your ballot paper and make sure it is stamped with only the official EC stamp. An unstamped or improperly stamped ballot paper will be rejected. Also, make sure there are no other ink marks on any part of the paper apart from the stamp of the EC.



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    2. Make sure your little finger, which has been dipped in indelible ink, does not come into contact with the ballot paper. Also, make sure your thumb which was used to thumbprint on the ballot paper does not mistakenly touch any part of the paper again after making your choice.

    3. Make sure you report any malfeasance observed either at the polling station during the voting process or afterward to the police and the returning officer if he or she is not the subject of suspicion.

    What do you also make of the issue of rejected ballots in our electoral system?

      13 Aug 2016

      NHIS; A Challenge To Quality Healthcare Delivery

      The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) is a form of National health insurance established by the Government of Ghana, with a goal to provide equitable access and financial coverage for basic health care services to Ghanaian citizens.[1]

      Foreigners were supposed to pay cash whenever they access healthcare services in Ghana because it was assumed such people could afford it. Besides, most of them never pay tax to the government.
      It was not until 2009 when the scheme was changed from its district-based mutual status to a nationwide status that foreigners began infiltrating its system. And it was also the time the problems of health insurance began to surface.


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      Some of the NHIS offices are packed with unqualified staff. Clients names are often wrongly spelt. Some clients names and pictures are even interchanged.
      National health insurance scheme

      Most of the workers are just criminals who employ any means they can to cheat the system. People's ages are either reduced or increased to qualify them to be registered as either being among the core poor clients or underage. This is mostly done on the blind side of registrants some of whom are mostly illiterate and can't give accurate ages or dates of birth. Although these members pay for registration and renewal, the monies enter into private pockets. Some district managers of the scheme even connive with workers under them to engage in these activities.


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      Foreigners are sometimes charged exorbitant fees before being allowed to register as Ghanaians. The money charged finds its way into the pockets of greedy NHIS staff, most of whom don't have any requisite qualification to occupy such offices.

      Imagine a Fulani family which goes to register and is charged an exorbitant amount of GHC 250 per head. The staff tells this family that it is a form of help they are being given because they are not Ghanaian citizens. This family, which may comprise of five members or more agree to pay the charged amount and are registered as Ghanaians. This staff has succeeded in making more than GHC 1000 instantly in connivance with other staff!

      The NHIS now dictates what medicines a client gets in a healthcare facility. There is a restricted list of medicines to prescribe for the various ailments, going out of which makes your claims of services rendered invalid for reimbursement. There is even a limited list of diagnoses to follow. Any prescriber who prescribes out of that list is doing a fruitless job for the health facility because such claims forms will not qualify for reimbursement. Some prescribers sometimes overestimate the diagnosis of some conditions to make the claims form valid.


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      Reimbursement is no longer done on a quarterly basis. It is now done at the whims and caprices of a certain manager who sits in the capital city of Ghana without any knowledge of what pertains in remote villages such as can be found in northern Ghana. There are times when certain hospitals and clinics run out of baseline drugs and have to partially halt operations until reimbursement is done.

      The district hospitals, which act as primary referral facilities, bear the brunt of the CHPS compounds and health centers. Some district hospitals have to always resort to loans from banks to buy basic consumables and baseline drugs just to keep afloat, awaiting reimbursement from Accra. There are currently some hospitals with more than a year's outstanding arrears to collect from the National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA), the responsible for running the NHIS.

      The national NHIA boss was heard on air saying they have enough money for reimbursement to all health facilities. He, however, said they had a technical problem which is making it difficult to reimburse claims. But, how technical could this problem be that it can't be resolved in a year?


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      And worse of it all, the targeted beneficiaries of health insurance are not deriving any benefits from it. They don't even know when their cards would expire. They only get to realize it when they are sick and come to the hospital. Others still believe so much in traditional medicine and superstition that they often delay at home and get to the hospital in a critical state. Most of these people often can't renew their cards instantly and use them. Even if they renew, it has to take a whole month for such cards to be active. They, therefore, have to always fork money out instantly to pay for all services rendered them.

      People who can afford to pay their bills in cash are those rather benefitting from the health insurance. They even renew it a month before it expires so they can be covered throughout the year. And they are those who patronize health facilities almost on a weekly basis. An abuse of the system you may say.

      How long is this going to continue? How long will the NHIS continue to cripple health facilities with debt? How long should healthcare facilities suffer in an effort to deliver appropriate care to clients because of NHIS?

      Benefits Of Online Shopping

      Most people don't want to shop online due to one or two reasons. Some people fear they will lose their money to scammers while others are confused as to how they can get the product they've bought online. If you're among any of these groups, then this article is for you.

      While it is true that some people have lost money to scammers online, it is also true that most of the local stores are now stocked with items bought online.

      Some people believe most of the online shops are populated with scammers who are doing all they can to swindle customers of their hard-earned cash. They will, therefore, prefer to buy from the local shop at an exorbitant price. They will rather allow their personal information to be stolen than their money.


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      Online shopping
      Many people don't have debit cards in Africa to engage in online shopping.
      Shops such as Amazon, Alibaba, AliExpress (an affiliate of Alibaba responsible for lightweight shopping) will never allow scammers on their sites. And the most interesting thing about these shops is that they will deliver at your specified address. There is a mode of tracking goods you have ordered. They will protect you from any vendor on their site who tries to cheat you. If you pay for the product and later change your mind, you can cancel the purchase and the money will be refunded back to your account.

      Other people also don't shop online because even if their goods arrive at the port or harbor, they will find it difficult to get them. Either they wouldn't be able to prove their identity for such items or they will not have money to pay for clearance. Some also say the cost of shipping such items, when added to the cost of the item, will make it more expensive than the one at the local store.

      On the contrary, most items bought online have a shipping cost far less than what you may be thinking. Some items even go with free shipping. This means you can buy an item and ask them to deliver it to your nearest postal address without you going out to do anything. The postmaster will call you when your items arrive on his desk. No fees are paid, depending on the kind of item. If the item you bought is a heavy one, you may be asked to pay something very small.

      Most of the items at the local store such as bracelets, earrings, clothing, footwear, mobile phones, computers, and so on are often shipped for free. No shipping charge is made on your account. Yet, the local store will add a shipping cost to it.

      From the time I mustered the courage to shop my first free item, I have always been an avid online shopper. I am aware of scammers and try as much as possible to stay off them by carefully analyzing and using the most popular online shopping portals such as Amazon and AliExpress. Ebay and Alibaba are also great shops with elaborate customer protection plans to prevent you from losing money to scammers.

      There are many advantages of shopping online. Apart from the convenience it gives, you have the freedom to compare prices from different online shops and get a better deal. You also have the freedom to buy items you otherwise wouldn't want people to see you buy in a traditional brick and mortar store, such as adult toys and weird ornaments. You also get to save time. The cheaper deals online also mean you will get to save money for other things. And the most interesting thing about it all is, you can start a small business through online shopping.

      To eliminate your fear of shopping online, just visit any of the popular sites and buy some of the free electronic software products available and see how it is to shop online. You can buy a free book or download free software, or even watch movie trailers all for free. All you need is a debit card (either Visa or MasterCard) and you are good to go.

      Would you try shopping online today? Link up and let's discuss.

      9 Aug 2016

      Who Will Fix The Accra Floods?

      The issue of floods in cities and towns is becoming an annual ritual whenever there is rain, no matter the intensity. The memories of last year's June 3 flood and fire disaster are still very fresh in our minds. But it seems the only lesson our leaders have learned from this gory incident is how to blame the populace and make them feel guilty while exonerating themselves.

      The authorities responsible for making sure this problem gets solved are always quick to push blame on citizens for being 'irresponsible' with the way they handle waste. They say we throw waste in drains and litter the streets. They say we are not patriotic. They say we will be those to suffer and die from the effects of floods and unsanitary environments. The care less if have a means of disposing of our waste responsibly.


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      Truth is, leaders who are supposed to fix this problem keep shifting the goalpost and the problem never gets fixed as a result. Citizens actually show bear responsibility by cleaning their homes and surroundings but have no proper waste disposal system. The waste so collected is then left to scatter back into clean spaces. De-silted drains are choked again because the silt is left at the edge of the drain. The drains are not even large to handle a large amount of water.

      Leaders are interested in taking tours around the city after a rainstorm and making wild promises about fixing the situation. Nothing concrete actually gets done about it, and the next time it happens they are quick to embark on another tour of the city without any shred of shame.

      Initially, waste bins were provided by a waste collection company (Zoomlion) to households to prevent people from dumping refuse in drains. This noble idea, however, became ineffective as the company placed profits over responsibility.  People paid for their waste to be collected on a monthly basis but over time, the lackadaisical attitude of the waste collection company created disinterest among patrons. Sometimes the waste overflows the bins and is left there for weeks. When they are called, all manner of excuses is given with a promise to come for it before dusk. They never show up. When the month is about ending, they begin to come around for it and remind you to pay your fees as soon as possible. After getting you to pay for a month's service, the situation replays itself.

      Hence, people are forced to dump waste in any available space they can find outside their homes, including waterways. The end result is the annual flooding that has plagued the capital city and other cities and towns for some years now.


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      The Way Forward

      It has been reported several times how our landfill sites are filling up every day with waste. I see this to be one of the reasons why people's garbage doesn't get collected. But is that the best way to treat waste in the 21st century? Examples abound of how people are making it big with waste in areas of energy. Yet, Ghana is seeing it as a curse! Yet, we are polluting the air and depleting the ozone layer further with our continuous incineration.

      We have leaders who only think about their generation and not the one after them. Recycling of waste is not in our national development plans. If we have forward-thinking leaders who have a will, Ghana could have augmented her current power shortages with power from waste. But no, they want to win elections at all cost and govern people through either fair or foul means. They care less what the needs of the people who voted for them are.

      We will, therefore, have to wallow in our waste until a leader one day decides to think straight and takes a bold decision to end flooding in our cities and towns. Yes, we have to fast and pray that God gives us such a leader one day by helping us to change our attitudes towards politicians and politics. Until we are able to vote using our heads and not our hearts, we will have to continue to die from diarrhea, cholera, typhoid and bilharzia due to our waste.

      Leave comments below.

      8 Aug 2016

      Breaking News: NDC To Launch 2016 Campaign Without Manifesto

      The governing National Democratic Congress says it will be launching its elections 2016 campaign next week without a manifesto.

      Addressing a news conference in Accra, the party’s Campaign team spokesperson, Joyce Bawah Mogtari said although the campaign will be launched on August 14, 2016, in the central region, the manifesto will be released at a later date, Joy News' Joseph Ackah-Blay reports.

      NDC Campaign Spokesperson Addressing A News Conference
      NDC Campaign Spokesperson Addressing A News Conference


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      She indicated that the theme for this year’s campaign will be “Changing lives, transforming Ghana.”

      The party is certain that President John Mahama will be re-elected in December.

      Mrs. Mogtari said President Mahama is “the best candidate for this year’s election.”

      Source: Myjoyonline.com

      10 Jul 2016

      Was President Mahama Stoned?

      The season of blasphemy and rumor mongering is here. So many allegations and fake statements will be made against opposing parties to tag them as either being violent, corrupt, criminal, or unfit to govern this country. And the alleged pelting of stones at president Mahama and his convoy was just one of those plays.

      Apparently, someone had a dream that the president was pelted with stones because he was at the New Patriotic Party's (NPP) stronghold. And some media stations, without doing any checks to confirm the truth or otherwise of this fake story, picked it up and started spinning it.

      NDC-NPP
      Is the obsession with NPP and NDC becoming a problem to the nation? Is the obsession making the electorate vote-casting machinery?
      It was later revealed that the people were arrested only for the regional minister of the Ashanti region, an appointee of the president, upon hearing the story, dismissed it outright. He even said nothing of the sort happened.


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      Where was the reporter of the story when the alleged pelting of stones was done on the president's convoy? So what were the media stations which reported this story trying to achieve? Was it to stir up anger in the NDC stronghold so they can do same to the NPP candidate whenever he comes there to campaign? Perhaps, somebody wished something of the sort happened so they can find a straw to hang on to remain relevant in political discussions. And the politics of tribalism and ethnicity would have been heavily boosted.

      Henchmen, in this case, the NDC henchmen, don't know of anything like 'reading between the lines.' They will quickly tag NPP as being those behind. They will say they are violent and dangerous. In fact, they will use all the harsh words they can find to malign them.

      I am wondering why the president of the nation can be stoned. I am also wondering how stones can be pelted at a presidential convoy, without anybody stopping to analyze the situation and act on it. Does it go to mean that if the president was attacked by armed robbers and guns were fired at them, they would complain bitterly without doing something about it? If yes, then we are not secure as a nation. Besides, who would be so bold to engage in such an act considering the level of security the president moves around with?


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      I think it is about time some people begin to think with their heads and stop thinking with their hearts. Ghana is for all of us. If violence breaks out, the ordinary Ghanaian is the one who will suffer. It will not be Nana Addo or John Mahama. For your information, they have their passports ready and can easily obtain visas to leave the country in case of violence. So don't fool yourself. Let the politicians who are trying all they can to corrupt your thoughts know that "they can fool some people only for some time, not all the time."

      21 Jun 2016

      Nude Content In The Media

      It is worrying that some individuals find it normal posting nude pictures and videos of themselves and other people on social media with impunity. It is even more disturbing to know that some of those who post these items do it on the blind side of the people involved. It is believed this is done to bring shame on those involved. What I don't understand is how that has become the best form of bringing shame on someone.
      Image Courtesy Wikimedia

      There is even a new hacking software on social media (especially Facebook) where some rogues post videos to certain groups and those who watch such videos get their social accounts hacked. The only means of knowing that your account has been hacked is when a close friend draws your attention to one or you happen to come across one yourself.


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      These hackers not only post on your personal timeline but also in all the groups you've joined. And the most worrying thing is that such videos get posted at a time you won't get to see them.

      Until recently, when the new hacking system was employed, I didn't know many Christians and Muslims actually fancy pornography. Yes, they like the sexually explicit content! Many of them got their accounts hacked and used to post some of these links.

      Pornography sells these days, unlike in the past when it was frowned upon by society. There is a race among media houses these days to make enough cash. No questions are asked relating to morality.

      Some few years back, this was not the case. Content believed to be pornographic in nature was shown only after 11 pm, when children were believed to be asleep. Children thought less about sex at the time and had no urge to try anything like it.


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      Children who are avid watchers of television, get their minds polluted at an early stage in their lives as they are fed automatically with what they see. Profits have occupied the minds of people who manage these channels, without a single thought about morality. Anything gets advertised because of the money attached to it.

      I see this upsurge in nudity in the media as an evidence of a breakdown in the moral fiber of our society. Even traditional media adverts are mixed with some of these nude pictures and videos. Ladies are seen in adverts half-naked. Their reason is that such adverts easily get noticed. Some of the movies shown even depict plain pornography.

      Despite some people's claims of piety, they still want to see other people naked and engaging in immoral acts. No religion endorses this behavior but people who belong to one religion or the other are those who practice these acts.

      I think the media these days are mostly for "politico-tainment" than education and information. No educative material gets broadcasted. It is either movies, music or politics.


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      Educative programs seem to have jumped out through the window the moment thoughts about profits entered the media. No educative programs such as the President's Special Initiative on Distance Learning (PSI-DL) which used to show on GTV and Metro TV's live science education program are shown these days.

      The people in charge of these channels have to wake up and salvage the situation. They must think about the future leaders of this nation and formulate good programs and policies to help them learn than just being obsessed with the 'cash'! It can be done if there is a will.

      What do you think about this current trend of events in the media? Leave a comment below.

      13 Jun 2016

      Plight Of Female Nursing Students: Who Is To Blame?

      Nursing as a noble profession is guided by a code of ethics and code of conduct. In fact, it takes someone with a kind heart and empathy to be able to care for the sick and the dying. No wonder it is often said, “Nursing is a calling.”

      There are numerous government and private nursing institutions in Ghana that train people with the interest to become nurses. As such, nursing students are seen in almost every corner of Ghana these days. It is easy to distinguish between female staff nurses and student nurses from their uniform. Whilst female staff have a full white armband on their uniforms, students have strips of white bands on their uniforms. The level or stage in which you are in school determines the number of white stripes on your uniform. However, a male staff is not so distinguished from male students as they all dress in the same manner.
      Ghana student nurses
      Image Courtesy GhanaWeb


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      When I was a student nurse in one of the nursing training colleges in Ghana, I observed a very interesting trend. As part of the training, all students are supposed to go to hospitals and practically observe and perform most of the things that have been taught in school. This is done very frequently, at least not less than eight times during the training period.

      Interestingly, whenever we go on clinical, I observed that the male staff nurses had a very “cordial” relationship with our female young student nurses as compared to us the male students. Sometimes you can be playing with your colleague female student nurse and a male staff nurse will jokingly tell you, “young man, be careful with the way you are playing with my wife.” We will all laugh about it and end it there. Whether that statement was true or not, I couldn’t tell because I was very naive at the time.

      Sometimes, our colleague females were given food, money, drinks and gifts. These ladies sometimes had pity on us and invite us to partake in their food. This trend continued even after I completed school. So, I then developed the interest to know what actually happens.

      When I was posted as a staff nurse in 2012, I started my investigations. I have worked in some government hospitals and through my investigations, I realized the story is not different from when I was in school as a student. Some male staff always give preferential treatment to female student nurses. The reason accounting for this is just a vague one.


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      During a personal encounter with some students and then colleague staff, it was revealed that female student nurses sometimes become victims to their senior colleagues due to one or two reasons.

      According to some staff I encountered, students serve as a form of motivation for them at work whenever they come on attachment. Others say some of the students attach themselves to them very closely. Others say they are just entertaining them to make their stay ‘comfortable’ during the clinical period.

      From the students’ perspective, “sometimes the seniors take advantage of our being in want,” says one female student. Another also said some of them have the mindset of meeting their life partners in the hospitals.

      Hmm. Is this actually happening? Yes, some staff, including doctors, nurses, pharmacists and laboratory technicians got their wives when they were students. This is however not the case with student nurses. Sometimes students are being deceived and slept with in the name of a relationship. Afterward, they dump these unfortunate ones to continue their search for life partners. Right from the medical doctor, matron, administrator, accountant, nurses, laboratory technicians, and records staff, there is no exception.

      Once students arrive for clinical practice, it becomes a competition among some staff of the hospital. They are seen desperately moving from ward to ward trying to get female students to court to their hungry beds. It is there that you will see a nurse giving a “friendly” but strong warning to a doctor to back off a particular student since he had already “picked the move”, as they fondly say.

      The interesting thing is that most of the students also count themselves 'lucky' if they're being sought after by workers. So, it is not surprising to see students tightly hooked onto those who have expressed an interest in them to avoid other students from “interfering in their relationship.”

      The big question is, what happens to their clinical practice as their minds are now divided? Can they learn with a divided mind? What happens to the competencies they are supposed to master before the clinical period is over?


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      Besides, are these staff single? No, some are even married. Are the students also single? Some have left their boyfriends and yet-to-be husbands at home. Yet, they agree to go into wacky relationships with staff as long as they are on clinical attachment.

      A student once told her colleague that for her, she doesn’t go into relationships with her colleague students since they can’t cater for her needs. She rather deals with staff that is already working and are on salary. Can you believe this? With this mindset, it is not surprising to see them always hanging around their admirers to prevent their colleagues from getting close. Sometimes, staff even pick quarrels with one another because of female students.

      When “boys boys” meet, discussions on these students arise. It is there that you will know who was successful in sleeping with which student and who was not, the number of students they slept with, the number of students who are “cheap” and those who are not, and so on and so forth.

      The question also is, is this love real? When students leave, what happens afterward? “Oh Charlie, they were just treated and discharged,” says some colleagues. This means the staff often don’t think about marriage. It is just for the fun of it. The students also have a mind of their own, and that is to get a life partner out of the relationship, although others also want to just have fun.

      The code of conduct for health staff describes most of these instances as forms of harassment, which are punishable. Most workers seem not to be aware of this, even though the code of conduct is in every unit. Some are aware but think it can’t be applied to them. Others are simply ignoramuses who think they are doing nothing wrong. Even those to apply the code are morally bankrupt themselves. So, with nothing in place to check the effectiveness of this code of conduct, all will have to get on their knees in prayer to help halt the escalation of this situation.

      Written By: Francis Appiah
      The writer is a Senior Staff Nurse (SSN) with the Ghana Health Service.
      Email: afranzoa87@gmail.com